Diagnostic Question Clusters on Energy and Matter (DQCs)
No. of Items:
five groups of MC, TF, and open-ended items on different aspects of metabolism in photosynthesizing and respiring organisms; diagrams, scenarios
Wilson CD, Anderson CW, Heidemann M, Merrill JE, Merritt BW, Richmond G, Sibley DF, Parker JM. 2007. Assessing students' ability to trace matter in dynamic systems in cell biology. CBE Life Sciences Education 5: 323-331.
Hartley LM, Wilke BJ, Schramm JW, D’Avanzo C, Anderson CW. 2011. College students’ understanding of the carbon cycle: contrasting principle-based and informal reasoning. BioScience 61: 65-75.