Open source software development has received considerable scholarly attention, much of which is based on the presumption that the `open source model' holds some lessons of broader applicability. Kerstin Balka focuses on the open source development of tangible objects, so-called open design. To explore the landscape and mechanisms of open design, she presents
a comprehensive study of 104 projects and an in-depth case study of six projects. The subsequent quantitative study explores openness as a gradual and multi-dimensional concept showing that companies can
successfully implement strategies of partial openness to safeguard value capture without alienating their developer community.
The Open Design Landscape
Open Design of Tangible Goods: A Comparative Case Study
The Meaning of Openness is not Trivial
How Openness Impacts Developer's Satisfaction and their Contribution